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Tuesday, May 28, 2024

A Paradigm Shift: Rethinking Physics and Cosmology Due to New Insights into the Universe’s Shape and Size

Recent findings, as discussed in a Nature Astronomy paper (Ref.1), have asserted with 99% confidence that our universe is closed, challenging the prevailing Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC). Another paper (Ref.2) even presents betting odds of 2000 ∶ 1 against an open, flat, and infinite universe. These revelations expose major cracks in the SMC, highlighting eight significant shortcomings (Ref.3A) that collectively indicate a crisis in cosmology, necessitating a paradigm shift. Major cracks have appeared in the standard model of cosmology.

Physics currently relies on two foundational theories: General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). However, these theories are inherently incompatible, resulting in a long-standing conflict between them (Ref.3B). This conflict within physics is openly acknowledged by physicists themselves (Ref.3C).

Subhajit Waugh, a scientist at RRCAT, boldly asserts that the incompatibility between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity arises from an erroneous model of the universe (4A). He has proposed an alternative model that defines the universe’s exact shape and size (Ref.4B), which experts can explore (Ref.5, 6, 7). Waugh claims that this “expanding (hyper) balloon” model leads to a unification of physics and cosmology, approaching a “theory of everything.”

This paradigm shift hearkens back to Edwin Hubble’s observation that galaxies move away from Earth at speeds proportional to their distance, an idea akin to an expanding balloon universe. Waugh argues that this concept was valid and should not have been abandoned. He posits that the universe’s wall comprises invisible scalar fields (similar to invisible electric and magnetic fields) and particles (excitations/resonances in those fields, as proposed by Quantum Field Theory). Since all matter consists of particles, everything is perpetually confined within the 3D hypersurface of these fields. Waugh regrets that scientists overlooked the fact that both the FLRW metric, foundational to the SMC, and the Minkowski metric, hint at this view of the universe. The temporal aspect of both metrics is akin (implying that the 3D hypersurface moves at velocity c in the fourth dimension), a detail often disregarded. Waugh uses a party balloon analogy to clarify this: as the balloon expands, a point on the wall moves away from the balloon’s center (analogous to the temporal part of FLRW metric), and nearby points on the wall appear to move apart due to the balloon’s expansion, giving rise to Hubble’s law.

Waugh’s critique extends to the concept of a four-dimensional “SpaceTime continuum” (Ref.8), as proposed by Einstein and Minkowski, merging three dimensions of space and one of time into a single 4D entity. This idea leads to a “block universe” view where past, present, and future coexist simultaneously, in contrast to everyday experience and numerous scientific observations. He attributes this mistake to a misinterpretation of imaginary numbers (Ref.9) in the Minkowski-Einstein SpaceTime equation, leading to the omission of one dimension. Correcting these mathematical errors, as argued by Waugh (Ref.10), could usher in a scientific revolution.

Waugh contends that his model meets the three key criteria to challenge established scientific theories and makes testable predictions (Ref.11). He anticipates that the Euclid telescope’s data will confirm a positively curved universe, implying closure and finiteness (Ref.12), thereby shaking the foundations of science.

In summary, Subhajit Waugh’s “expanding (hyper) balloon” model of the universe offers a potential paradigm shift that could unify physics and cosmology, superseding existing theories and challenging the Standard Model of Cosmology.


1) Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0906-9

2) Curvature tension: Evidence for a closed universe


3A) A candid assessment of standard cosmology


3B) Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe


3C) World’s largest physics conference in Las Vegas will be grand; but will it be worthwhile?


4A) RRCAT Physicist Proposes New Theory Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics


4B) We are wrong about the shape and size of our universe: RRCAT Physicist provides a new model of universe.


5) Shape and size of our universe: challenging the Standard Model of Cosmology https://www.researchgate.net/publication/371487379_Shape_and_size_of_our_universe_challenging_the_Standard_Model_of_Cosmology

6) Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are compatible, and have a common origin: the expanding (hyper) balloon universe


7) Is everything we know about the shape and size of our universe, and how it works, wrong?


8) The biggest mistake in Science: Space and Time do not fuse into SpaceTime continuum.


9) RRCAT Physicist Claims Correct Representation of Imaginary Numbers May Unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics


10) Science is standing on shaky mathematical pillars, which guarantees a scientific revolution


11) Scientist Mr. Subhajit Waugh Makes Testable and Falsifiable Predictions that Could Shake up Science to the Core


12) Euclid telescope will revolutionize science, overthrow ruling scientific theories, and usher paradigm shift in science.



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